Diosmin is derived by extracting hesperidin from citrus rinds, followed by the conversion of hesperidin to diosmin. Diosmin has been used for more than 30 years as a vein tonic and vein-protective agent. It is now being researched for premenstrual syndrome, colitis, and diabetes.
CVI is characterized by pain, leg heaviness, a sensation of swelling and cramps, and is often seen in those with varicose veins. A multicenter international trial involving 5,052 people with CVI evaluated diosmin. Patients were treated with 450 mg of diosmin and 50 mg of hesperidin daily for six months. Continuous clinical improvement was found throughout the study, as well as improvements in the participants’ quality of life scores. Diosmin has also been found effective in treating severe stages of CVI, including venous ulceration and delayed healing.
Horse Chestnut Extract is used for the treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency including pain and heaviness in the legs, night-time cramps in the calves, and itchy, swollen legs; along with phlebitis and varicose veins. It is also effective for hemorrhoids, skin inflammation and premenstrual syndrome. Aescin, the active ingredient in horse chestnut, tones the walls of the veins, improving the flow of blood back to the heart. Horse chestnut extract also relieves swelling.
Butcher's Broom (Ruscus aculeatus) has been shown in several clinical trials to reduce varicose veins and hemorrhoids, and to treat the itching and burning of hemorrhoids. It is also used to help treat lower leg discomfort, including cramps, pain, itching and swelling caused by pooling of blood in the veins.
A 1994 review of pharmacological studies indicated that butcher’s broom extract exerts activity on the three levels of circulation involved in CVI. It acts on lymphatic drainage, the constriction of blood vessels and microcirculation. When used in combination with the other ingredients in VEINsmart, it also improves the strength of veins and reduces permeability. Butcher’s broom has been found to reduce blood pooling in the lower leg and also the size of the ankle and lower leg. Butcher’s broom also reduces enlarged veins.
Hesperidin is the main flavonoid in lemons and oranges. In combination with diosmin, hesperidin is used in Europe for the treatment of venous insufficiency and hemorrhoids. Hesperidin reduces the permeability of the capillaries and is an anti-inflammatory agent. In combination with diosmin, hesperidin has significantly improved acute internal hemorrhoids of pregnancy in a clinical trial.